1.Thales [c.624/623 BC–c.548/545 BC] initiated the first systematic mathematical approach among Greek scholars. The Pythagorean School --- founded by Pythagoras [c.570 BC–c.495 BC] --- gave rise to the Pythagorean Theorem, a fundamental tenet of geometry, as well as to the existence of irrational numbers’ by the method of contradiction.
2.There are speculations that either Theaetetus [c.417 BC–c.369 BC] or Plato [c.428/427 BC–c.348/347 BC] proved that there were only five regular solids. Euclid [Mid-4th century BC – Mid-3rd century BC] brought a clear conception of “proof” into mathematics. He organized all the known theorems in Geometry at that time, by deriving them rigorously from five axioms which are intuitively clear. The axiomatic approach to organize scientific materials has deep influence on later development of science, including Newton’s treatment of mechanics and the modern attempt to unified all forces in theoretical physics. Euclid also showed that there are infinitely many prime numbers. Ancient Greek mathematicians started to be suspicious about Euclid's fifth postulate --- the parallel postulate, and tried to prove it by the other four axioms. This idea influenced the development of mathematics. The parallel postulate is equivalent to the triangle postulate, which states that the sum of angles of a triangle equals 180 degrees. It is the embryonic form of Gauss–Bonnet formula. Parallel is one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics and influenced modern physics. Trisecting angle and squaring circle are the straightedge and compass construction problems put forward by the Greeks, one associated with Galois group and one with the transcendence of.
3.Archimedes [c.287 BC–c.212 BC] introduced infinitesimals, which are key elements of calculus, and he used the “Method of Exhaustion” to calculate the surface area and volume of several important geometrical objects, including the surface area and volume of spheres and areas of sections of paraboloid. He also provided precise mathematical solutions to many important problems of physics.Archimedes also proved the inequalitiesby inscribing and circumscribing a 96-sided regular polygon. Hundreds of years later, Liu Hui [c.225–c.295] and Zu Chongzhi [429–500] obtainedwith a 192-sided polygon.
3.阿基米德引进了极小元，它可说是微积分的滥觞。他运用“穷尽法”来计算某些重要几何物体的表面积和体积，其中包括了球的表面积和体积，以及抛物体的截面积。他也得到很多重要物理问题的精确数学解。阿基米德又用内接和外切正 96 边形去逼近单位圆，证明了不等式。几百年后，刘徽和祖冲之以 192 边形逼近得到圆周率为 3.1416。
4.Eratosthenes [276 BC–194 BC] introduced the “sieve” method in number theory. This work was built upon, some 2,000 years later, by Legendre. In the 20th century, a new “large sieve” method was introduced, thanks to the collective efforts of Viggo Brun [1885–1978], Atle Selberg [1917–2007], Pál Turán [1910–1976]. G. H. Hardy [1877–1947] and J. E. Littlewood [1885–1977] introduced the circle method and proved a weak Goldbach conjecture stating that every large odd integer can be written as sum of three primes (assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis). Ivan Vinogradov [1891–1983] later removed that assumption. His proof was followed by Chen Jingrun [1933–1996], who proved that every large even integer can be written as the sum of a prime number plus the product of two primes.
5.In the eighth century, Arab mathematician Al-Khalil [718–786] wrote on cryptography; Al-Kindi [c.801–c.873] used statistical inference in cryptanalysis and frequency analysis. In the seventeenth century, Pierre de Fermat [1607–1665], Blaise Pascal [1623–1662] and Christiaan Huygens [1629–1695] started the subject of probability. This was followed by Jakob Bernoulli [1654–1705] and Abraham de Moivre [1667–1754]. In eighteenth century, Pierre-Simon Laplace [1749–1827] proposed the frequency of the error is an exponential function of the square of the error. Andrey Markov [1856–1922] introduced Markov chains, which can be applied to stochastic processes.
6.Several important methods were introduced in numerical calculations over many centuries. In ancient times, the Chinese mathematician Qin Jiushao [c.1202–c.1261] found an efficient numerical method to solve polynomial equations. He also applied the Chinese remainder theorem for the purposes of numerical calculations. Chinese remainder theorem appeared in the book called the Mathematical classic of Sunzi around 4th century. In modern days, John von Neumann [1903–1957] and Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy  studied the finite difference method. Richard Courant [1888–1972] studied the finite element method, while Stanly Osher [1942–] studied the level set method. A very important numerical method is the fast Fourier transform which can be dated back to Gauss in 1805. In 1965, J. Cooley [1926–2016] and J. Tukey [1915–2000] studied a general case and gave more detail analysis. It has become the most important computation tool in numerical calculations, especially for digital signal processing.
6.多个世纪以来，人们在数值计算方面找到了几个重要的方法。宋代数学家秦九韶找到了一个求解多项式方程的有效方法。他也把孙子定理应用到数值计算上，孙子定理首见于四世纪的《孙子算经》一书中。到了现代，冯·诺伊曼、柯朗–弗理德里赫斯–路维研究了有限差分法。柯朗研究了有限元，而奥舍尔则发展了水平集方法。一个重要的数值方法是快速傅立叶变换，此法可追溯到 1805 年的高斯。1965 年，库利和图基考虑了更一般的情况，并作出详尽的分析。从此，快速傅立叶变换成为数值计算尤其是数字讯息处理中最重要的方法。
7.Gerolamo Cardano [1501–1576] published (with attribution) the explicit formulae for the roots of cubic and quartic polynomials, due to Scipione del Ferro [1465–1526] and Ludovico Ferrari [1522–1565], respectively. He promoted the use of negative and imaginary numbers and proved the binomial theorem. Later Carl Friedrich Gauss [1777–1855] proved the fundamental theorem of algebra that every polynomial ofth degree hasroots in the complex plane.
8.René Descartes [1596–1650] invented analytic geometry, introducing the Cartesian coordinate system that built a bridge between geometry and algebra. This important concept enlarged the scope of geometry. He also proposed a precursor of symbolic logic.
9.Pierre de Fermat [1607–1665] introduced a primitive form of the variational principle, generalizing the work of Hero of Alexandria. With Blaise Pascal [1623–1662], he laid the foundations for probability theory. He also began to set down the foundation of modern number theory.
10.Isaac Newton [1643–1727] systematically established the subject of calculus while also discovering the fundamental laws of mechanics. He formulated the law of universal gravitation and applied the newly developed calculus to derive Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion. He found the Newton’s method to find roots of an equation which converge quadratically fast.
11.Leonhard Euler [1707–1783] was the founder of the calculus of variations, graph theory, and number theory. He introduced the concept of the Euler characteristic and initiated the theory of elliptic functions, the zeta function, and its functional equation. He was also the founder of modern fluid dynamics and analytic mechanics. His formulahas tremendous influence in mathematics including the development of Fourier analysis.
12.Joseph Fourier [1768–1830] introduced the Fourier series and the Fourier Transform, which became the main tool for solving linear differential equations. A fundamental question in Fourier series analysis is Lusin’s conjecture, which was solved by Lennart Carleson [1928–]. It says that a square integrable Fourier series converges pointwise almost everywhere.The ideas of Joseph Fourier contributed fundamentally to wave and quantum mechanics.
13.Mikio Sato [1928–] introduced hyper-functions. Lars Hörmander [1931–2012] studied Fourier integral operators. Masaki Kashiwara [1947–] and Joseph Bernstein [1945–] studied-modules. The theory of-modules has important applications in analysis, algebra, and group representation theory.
14.Carl Friedrich Gauss [1777–1855] proved the fundamental theorem of algebra. He is the founder of modern number theory, discovering the Prime Number Theorem and Quadratic Reciprocity. He studied the geometry of surfaces and discovered intrinsic (Gauss) curvature. Gauss, Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky [1792–1856], and János Bolyai [1802–1860] independently discovered non-euclidian geometry.
15.Augustin-Louis Cauchy [1789–1857] and Bernhard Riemann [1826–1866] initiated the study of function theory of one complex variable --- a development built upon later by Karl Weierstrass [1815–1897], Émile Picard [1856–1941], Émile Borel [1871–1956], Rolf Nevanlinna [1895–1980], Lars Ahlfors [1907–1996], Menahem Max Schiffer [1911–1997], and others. The space of bounded holomorphic functions over a domain form a Banach algebra whose abstract boundary needs to be identified. Lennart Carleson solved this corona problem for the planar disk. A higher dimensional version of this problem is still open. Louis de Branges [1932–] solved the coefficient (Bieberbach) conjecture of univalent holomorphic functions.
16.Hermann Grassmann [1809–1877], Henri Poincaré [1854–1912], Élie Cartan [1869–1951], and Georges de Rham [1903–1990] studied differential forms. Hermann Weyl [1885–1955] defined what a manifold is and used method of projection to prove Hodge decomposition for Riemann surfaces. Georges de Rham [1903–1990] proved the de Rham’s theorem. William Hodge [1903–1975] generalized the theory of Weyl to higher dimensional manifolds. He introduced the star operator. When the manifold is Kähler, he gave refined decomposition theory for differential forms and put the topological theorems of Lefschetz into anrepresentation on the space of Hodge forms. The de Rham complex contains informations of rational homotopy of the manifold, as was observed by Dennis Sullivan [1941–] based on works of Daniel Quillen [1940–2011] and Kuo-Tsai Chen [1923–1987] on iterated integrals. Sullivan and Micheline Vigue–Poirrier used this theory and the work of Detlef Gromoll [1938–2008]–Wolfgang Meyer [1936–] to prove that simply connected manifold whose rational cohomology ring is not generated by one element has infinitely many geometrically distinct geodesics.
17.Niels Henrik Abel [1802–1829] used permutation group to prove that one cannot solve general polynomial equations by radicals when the degree is greater than 4. Later on, Évariste Galois [1811–1832] invented group theory to give the precise criterion of solvability by radicals for a polynomial. Sophus Lie [1842–1899] studied symmetries and introduced continuous groups of symmetry transformations, which are now called Lie groups. Wilhelm Killing [1847–1923] continued the study of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Galois theory has deep consequences in number theory. Emil Artin[1898-1962]–John Tate[1925-2019] studied the general theory of Galois modules, in particular, class field theory in term of Galois cohomology. Kenkichi Iwasawa [1917–1998] studied structures of Galois modules over extensions with Galois group being a-adic Lie group and defined arithmetic-adic-function. He asked whether the arithmetic one is essentially same as the-adic-function defined by Tomio Kubota [1930–] and Heinrich-Wolfgang Leopoldt [1927–2011] using interpolation on Bernoulli numbers. Major contributions to Iwasawa theory are made by Ken Ribet [1948–], John Coates [1945–], Barry Mazur [1937–]–Andrew Wiles [1953–], and others.
17. 阿贝尔利用置换群证明了当多项式方程的次数大于四时，一般的求根公式并不存在。之后，伽罗瓦发明了群论给出了一个多项式方程是否可根式求解的判定准则。索菲斯·李研究了对称性，并引入了对称变换的连续群，后世称为李群。基林继续李群和李代数的研究。伽罗瓦理论在数论有深远的影响。阿廷和泰特研究了伽罗华模的一般理论, 比如用伽罗华上同调建立类域论。岩泽健吉研究了伽罗瓦群为进李群时伽罗瓦模的结构, 并定义了算术的进-函数。他提出了这个算术的进-函数与久保田富雄和利奥波德利用在伯努利数上插值所定义的进-函数是否本质相同这个问题。里贝特、科茨、马祖尔和怀尔斯等人对岩泽理论作出了重大贡献。
18.In 1843, William Hamilton [1805–1865] introduced quaternion number. It had deep influence in both mathematics and physics including the work of Paul Dirac [1902–1984] in Dirac operator. At the same time, octonions (or Cayley number) was introduced independently by Arthur Cayley [1821–1895] and John T. Graves [1806–1870] independently. In 1958, M. Kervaire [1927–2007] and J. Milnor [1931–] independently used Bott periodicity and-theory to prove that the only real division algebras of finite dimension has dimension 1, 2, 4 and 8.
18.1843 年，汉密尔顿引入了四元数，四元数对数学和物理都有深远的影响，后者见于狄拉克有关狄拉克算子的工作。同时，凯利和格雷夫斯独立地引入了八元数。1958 年，卡维尔和米尔诺独立地利用博特的周期性定理和理论证明了实域上有限维可除代数的维数只能是 1，2，4 和 8。
19.Diophantine approximation is a subject to approximate real number by rational numbers. In 1844, Joseph Liouville [1809–1882] gave the first explicit transcendental number. Axel Thue [1863–1922], Carl Siegel [1896–1981] and Klaus Roth [1925–2015] developed it as a field that are important for solving Diophantine equations. Hermann Minkowski [1864–1909] introduced method of convex geometry to find solutions. This was followed by Louis Mordell [1888–1972], Harold Davenport [1907–1969], Carl Siegel [1896–1981], Wolfgang Schmidt [1933–] and others.
20.Bernhard Riemann [1826–1866] introduced the theory of Riemann surfaces and began to study topology of higher dimensional manifolds. He carried out a semi-rigorous proof of the uniformization theorem in complex analysis. Poincaré and Koebe generalized this theory to general Riemann surfaces. Riemann generalized the Jacobi theta function and introduced the Riemann theta function defines on abelian varieties. By studying the zeros of the Riemann theta function, he was able to give an important interpretation of the Jacobean inversion problem. He also defined the Riemann zeta function and studied its analytic continuation. He formulated the Riemann hypothesis concerning the zeta function, which has far-reaching consequences in number theory. The idea of zeta function was generalized to-functions by P.G.L. Dirichlet [1805–1859] where important number theoretic theorems are proved. Riemann zeta function was used by Jacques Hadamard [1865–1963] and C.J. de la Vallée Poussin [1866–1962] to prove the prime number conjecture of Gauss (elementary proof was found later by Paul Erdős [1913–1996] and Atle Selberg [1917–2007].) Zeta function for spectrum of operators is used to define invariants of the operator. Ray–Singer introduced their invariant for manifolds based on such regularization.
20.黎曼引进了黎曼曲面，并开创了高维流形拓扑的研究。他对复分析上的单值化定理首先给出一个差不多严格的证明。庞加莱和科布把他的理论推广至一般的黎曼面。黎曼推广了雅可比 theta 函数并引进了定义在阿贝尔簇上的黎曼 theta 函数。透过对黎曼 theta 函数零点的研究，给出了雅可比反演问题的重要解释。他又定义了黎曼 zeta 函数，并研究其解析延拓。沿着 zeta 函数的想法，狄利克雷引进了函数作为推广，并用来证明了好些数论的定理。黎曼 zeta 函数为哈达玛和瓦利普桑用来证明高斯的素数定理（初等证明后由埃尔德什和塞尔伯格给出）。算子谱的 zeta 函数也用来定义算子的不变量。雷和辛格利用这种正则化引进了流形上的不变量。
21.After Riemann [1826–1866] introduced Riemannian geometry, Elwin Christoffel [1829–1900], Gregorio Ricci [1853–1925], and Tullio Levi-Civita [1873–1941] carried it further. Hermann Minkowski [1864–1909] was first to use four dimensional spacetime to provide a complete geometric description of special relativity. All these developments became key mathematical tools in the formulation of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which identifies gravitation as an effect of space-time geometry. Marcel Grossmann [1878–1936] and David Hilbert [1862–1943] contributed to this development significantly.
22.Riemann [1826–1866] started the theory of nonlinear shock waves, and this was followed by John von Neumann, Kurt Otto Friedrichs [1901–1982], Peter Lax [1926–], James Glimm [1934–], Andrew Majda [1949–], and others. The theory for multi-dimensional wave is still largely unsolved.
23.Georg Cantor [1845–1918] founded set theory in the 19th century, defined cardinal and ordinal numbers, and also started the theory of infinity. Kurt Gödel [1906–1978] proved the incompleteness theorem in 1931. Alfred Tarski [1901–1983] developed model theory. Paul Cohen [1934–2007] developed the theory of forcing and proved that continuum hypothesis and axiom of choice are independent based on Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms.
23.十九世纪，康托创立了集合论。他定义了基数和序数，并且开始了对无限的研究。1931 年，哥德尔证明了不完备定理。塔斯基发展了模型论。科恩发展了迫力理论，并且证明了在集合论中的 ZF 公理下，连续统假设和选择公理是独立的。
24.Felix Klein [1849–1925] initiated the study of the Kleinian group. He started the Erlangen program of classifying geometry according to groups of symmetries of the geometry. New geometries such as affine geometry, projective geometry, and conformal geometry were studied from this point of view. Emmy Noether [1882–1935] demonstrates how to obtain conserved quantities from continuous symmetries of a physical system. In 1926, Élie Cartan [1869–1951] introduced the concept of holonomy group into Geometry. Those Riemannian geometries whose holonomy groups are proper subgroups of orthogonal groups are rather special. In 1953, Marcel Berger [1927–2016], based on the works of Ambrose–Singer, classified those Lie groups that can appear as holonomy groups for Riemannian geometries. When the group is unitary, it gives Kähler geometry which was introduced by Erich Kähler [1906–2000] in 1933. When it is special unitary group, it gives Calabi–Yau geometry. When the groups are other exceptional Lie group, examples of those manifolds were constructed by Dominic Joyce [1968–]. The concept of holonomic group provides internal symmetry for modern physics.
24.克莱因开创了克莱因群的研究，他在爱朗根纲领中提出利用几何的对称群来为几何学分类。崭新的几何如仿射几何、射影几何和共形几何都可以用这观点来研究。诺特阐明了如何从物理系统的连续对称群来得到守恒量。1926 年，嘉当在几何中引进了和乐群。和乐群为正交群的真子群的黎曼几何尤其特殊。1953 年，贝格根据安保斯和辛格的工作，把能作为黎曼几何和乐群的李群都分了类。当群是酉群时，所得到的便是 1933 年由凯勒引进的凯勒几何。当它是特殊酉群时，所得到的便是卡拉比–丘几何。当它是其他例外李群时，所得到的流形有好些由乔伊斯构造出来。和乐群的概念为现代物理提供了内部对称。
25.In 1882, Ferdinand von Lindemann [1852–1939] proved the transcendence of numbers which are exponential of algebraic integers and established the transcendence of. The theorem was generalized by Karl Weierstrass [1815–1897]. In 1934–1935, Alexander Gelfond [1906–1968] and Theodor Schneider [1911–1988] solved the Hilbert seventh problem, hence generalized the theorem of Lindemann–Weierstrass. In 1966, Alan Baker [1939–2018] gave an effective estimate of the theorem of Gelfond–Schneider. In 1960's, Stephen Schanuel [1933–2014] formulated a more general conjecture and the Schanuel conjecture was generalized again by Alexander Grothendieck [1928–2014] as conjectures on periods of integrals in algebraic geometry.
25.1852 年，林德曼证明了代数整数的指数乃是超越数，他也建立了圆周率的超越性。他的定理稍后由魏尔斯特拉斯所推广。在 1934 年和 1935 年之间，盖尔范德和施耐德解决了希尔伯特第七问题，因此推广了林德曼–魏尔斯特拉斯定理。1966 年，贝克给出了盖尔范德–施耐德定理的有效估计。1960 年代，史安努尔提出了一个更广泛的猜想，其后格罗腾迪克又把史安努尔猜想推广，成为代数几何学上有关积分周期的某些猜想。
26.Henri Poincaré [1854–1912], Emmy Noether [1882–1935], James Alexander [1888–1971], Heinz Hopf [1894–1971], Hassler Whitney [1907–1989], Eduard Čech [1893–1960] and others laid the foundation for algebraic topology. They introduced important concepts such as chain complex, Čech cohomology, homology, cohomology and homotopic groups. A very important concept was the duality introduced by Poincaré.
27.David Hilbert [1862–1943] studied integral equations and introduced Hilbert spaces. He studied spectral resolution of self adjoins operators of Hilbert space. The algebra of operators acting on Hilbert space has become a fundamental tool to understand quantum mechanics. This was studied by John von Neumann [1903–1957] and later by Alain Connes [1947–] and Vaughan Jones [1952–].
28.Hilbert established the general foundation of Invariant Theory which was further developed by David Mumford [1937–] and others. It became an important tool for investigating moduli spaces of various algebraic structures. In most cases, the Moduli spaces of algebraic geometric structures are themselves algebraic varieties, after taking into accounts of degenerate algebraic structures. Wei-Liang Chow [1911–1995] parametrize algebraic varieties of a fixed degree in a projective space by the Chow coordinates. Deligne–Mumford compactified the moduli space of algebraic curves while David Gieseker [1943–] and Eckart Viehweg [1948–2010] compactified moduli space of manifolds of general type. David Gieseker [1943–] and Masaki Maruyama [1944–2009] studied moduli space of vector bundles. For Moduli space of abelian varieties, there is classical theory of compactification of quotients of Siegel spaces, based on reduction theory due to H. Minkowski. For locally symmetric space with finite volume , there are various compactification due to Armand Borel [1923–2003], Walter Bailey [1930–2013], Ichirō Satake [1927–2014], Jean-Pierre [1926–] and others. In the other direction, a very important analytic approach to moduli space of Riemann surfaces was initiated by Oswald Teichmüller [1913–1943] based on the concept of quasi conformal maps. L. Ahlfors [1907–1996], L. Bers [1914–1993], H. Royden [1928–1993], and others continued this approach.
29.Based on the works of Gauss reciprocity law, Kummer extensions, Leopold Kronecker [1823–1891] and Kurt Hensel [1861–1941]’s work on ideals and completions, Hilbert introduced class field theory. Emil Artin [1898–1962] proved Artin reciprocity law inspired by the earlier works of Teiji Takagi [1875–1960] on existence theorem. Both local and global class field theories were redeveloped by Artin and Tate using group cohomology. Later works were done by Goro Shimura [1930–2019], J.-P. Serre, Robert Langlands [1936–], and Andrew Wiles [1953–], through a series of research that closely combined number theory with group representation theory. Besides Langlands program, higher class field theory also appears in algebraic-theory.
30.In the 20th century, Élie Cartan [1869–1951] and Hermann Weyl [1885–1955] made important contributions to the structure of compact Lie groups and Lie algebras and their representations. Weyl contributed to quantum mechanics by using representation of compact groups. Pierre Deligne [1944–], George Lusztig [1946–], and others laid the foundation of representation theory of finite groups of Lie type. Mathematical physicists such as Eugene Wigner [1902–1995], Valentine Bargmann [1908–1989], and George Mackey [1916–2006] started to apply representation theory of a special class of noncompact groups to study quantum mechanics. After the important work of Kirillov and Gel’fand school on the representation of nilpotent groups and semi simple groups, Harish-Chandra [1923–1983] laid the foundation of Representation Theory of Non-compact Lie Groups. His work influenced the work of R. Langlands on Eisenstein series. I. Piatetski-Shapiro [1929–2009], I. M. Gel’fand [1913–2009], R. Langlands [1936–], H. Jacquet [1939–], J. Arthur [1944–], A. Borel [1923–2003] and others developed the theory of automorphic representation. Adelic approach based on representation of-adic groups and Hecke operation has been very powerful. Borel–Bott–Weil type theorems have provided geometric insight into representations of Lie groups.
30.二十世纪初，嘉当和魏尔对紧李群丶李代数及其表示论都作出了杰出的贡献。魏尔把紧群的表示用于量子力学。德利涅、卢斯提格等人为李类型的有限群表示论奠下基石。数学物理学家如维格纳、巴格曼、麦基等开始把某类特殊的非紧群的表示论应用于量子力学。继基里洛夫和盖尔范德学派关于幂零群和半单群表示论的重要工作后，哈里斯钱德拉为非紧李群的表示论打下基础。他的工作影响了朗兰兹有关爱森斯坦级数的工作。皮亚捷斯基夏皮罗、盖尔范德、朗兰兹、雅克、亚瑟、博雷尔等人发展了自守表示理论，其中的基于进位群的表示和赫克运算的 adelic 方法十分有用。布雷尔–博特–韦伊型定理给出李群的表示论几何方面深刻的看法。
31.L. E. J. Brouwer [1881–1966], Heinz Hopf [1894–1971], Solomon Lefschetz [1884–1972] initiated the study of the fixed point theory in topology. This was later generalized to the general elliptic differential complex by Atiyah–Bott. Graeme Segal [1941–] worked with Atiyah on equivariant-theory. In 1982, Duistermaat–Heckman found the symplectic localization formula, then Berline–Vergne and Atiyah–Bott obtained localization formula in equivariant cohomology setting independently. Atiyah and Bott introduced the powerful method of localization of equivariant cohomology to fixed point of torus action. They became powerful tools for computation in algebraic geometry.
32.George Birkhoff [1884–1944] and Henri Poincaré [1854–1912] created the modern theory of dynamical systems and ergodic theory. Von Neumann and Birhoff proved the ergodic theorem. Andrey Kolmogorov [1903–1987], Vladimir Arnold [1937–2010], and Jürgen Moser [1928–1999] showed that ergodicity is not a generic property of Hamiltonian systems by showing that invariant tori of integrable systems persist under small perturbations. Donald Ornstein [1934–] proved that Bernoulli shifts are determined by their entropy.
33.Hermann Weyl [1885–1955] introduced his gauge principle in 1928.In the period between 1926 to 1946, the study of principal bundles (non abelian gauge theory) was developed by Élie Cartan, Charles Ehresmann [1905–1979], and others. Around the same period, Hassler Whitney [1907–1989] initiated the theory of characteristic classes and vector bundles (with a special case provided by Eduard Stiefel [1909–1978]). In 1941, Lev Pontryagin [1908–1988] introduced characteristic classes for real vector bundles. In 1945, Shiing-Shen Chern [1911–2004] introduced the Chern classes on the basis of the work of Todd and Edger. Chern and Simons introduced the Chern–Simons invariants, which are important for knot invariants and condensed matter physics through topological quantum field theory. In 1954, Wolfgang Pauli [1900–1958], Chen-Ning Yang [1922–]–Robert Mills [1927–1999] applied the Weyl gauge principle and the nonabelian gauge theory due to É. Cartan, C. Ehresmann and S. S. Chern to particle physics. However ,they were not able to explain the existence of mass until the important development of the theory of symmetry breaking and the fundamental works of Gerard t’Hooft [1946–], Ludvig Fadeeev [1934–2017], et al.
33.1928年，魏尔引进了他的规范原理。在 1926 年到 1946 年期间，主纤维丛的研究（非阿贝尔规范场论）由嘉当、埃雷斯曼和其他人发展了。差不多同一时期，惠特尼开始了示性类和向量丛理论（斯蒂费尔给出其中一个特殊情况）的研究。庞特利雅金对实向量丛引入了示性类。1945 年，陈省身根据托德和艾德格的工作创造了陈类。陈省身和西蒙斯引入了陈–西蒙斯不变量。透过拓扑量子场论，这些不变量对纽结不变量以及凝聚态物理学都很重要。1954 年，泡利、杨振宁–米尔斯把魏尔的规范原理和嘉当、埃雷斯曼、陈省身等创造的非阿贝尔规范场论用到粒子物理学上去。然而，这些理论没能解释物质质量的存在，一直到对称破坏理论，以及提霍夫特和法德耶夫等人的基础性工作的出现，问题才有进展。
34.The foundational work of Weyl on the spectrum of a differential operator influenced the development of quantum mechanics, differential geometry, and graph theory. The Weyl law counts eigenvalues asymptotically. The spectrum of elliptic operators and the special nature of spectral function became the most important branch of harmonic analysis. Basic properties of zeta functions of eigenvalues was studied by S. Minakshisundaram [1913–1968] and Åke Pleijel [1913–1989]. Daniel Ray [1928–1979] and Isadore Singer [1924–] defined the determinant of the Laplacian and introduced the Ray–Singer invariants. For Dirac operators, Atiyah–Singer–Patodi studied eta functions and obtained eta invariants for odd dimensional manifolds.
34.魏尔有关微分算子谱的基础工作影响了量子力学、微分几何和图论的发展。魏尔定律给出特征值的渐近性质。椭圆算子的谱和谱函数的特性成为调和分析最重要的分支。闵那克史孙达朗和普莱耶尔研究了特征值的 zeta 函数的基本性质。雷和辛格定义了拉普拉斯算子的行列式，并且引进了雷–辛格不变量。对狄拉克算子而言，阿蒂雅–辛格–帕度提研究了 eta 函数，对奇数维的流形得到其 eta 不变量。
35.Erwin Schrödinger [1887–1961] invented the Schrödinger equation to define the dynamics of wave functions in quantum (or wave) mechanics. Weyl and Schrödinger used it to find the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Heisenberg and Weyl showed that wave functions satisfy the uncertainty principle, i.e. a function and its Fourier transform cannot be localized simultaneously. Feynman introduced the path integral in quantum mechanics which became the most important tool for quantization of physical system.
36.Louis Mordell [1888–1972] proposed the Mordell conjecture. He also proved the finite rank of the group of points of a rational elliptic curve. André Weil [1906–1998] studied this Mordell–Weil group by generalized the work of Mordell to include number field case. C. L. Siegel [1896–1981] studied integral points for arithmetic varieties. Many important conjectures including the Mordell conjecture was finally solved by Gerd Faltings [1954–] based on Arakelov Geometry. He also proved the Shafarevich conjecture for abelian varieties.
37.Zeros of eigenfunctions were studied extensively by many authors. Richard Courant [1888–1972] found the nodal domain theorem. Shing-Tung Yau [1949–] noticed that volume of the nodal set is a quantity stable under deformations and made his conjecture on sharp upper and lower bounds for this quantity. The conjecture has became an important direction in spectrum research. Donnelly and Fefferman proved the Yau conjecture in the real analytic setting. Several approaches for smooth manifolds led to useful results, but far from optimal.
38.Stefan Banach [1892–1945] introduced Banach space, which represents rather general infinite dimensional space of functions. The Hahn–Banach theorem has become an important lemma. Joram Lindenstrauss [1936–2012], Per Enflo [1944–], Jean Bourgain [1954–2018] and others made important contributions to important questions for Banach space, including the invariant subspace problem. Juliusz Schauder [1899–1943] introduced fixed point theorem for Banach space that helped to solve partial differential equations.
39.Marston Morse [1892–1977] introduced methods of topology to study critical point theory and vice versa. This method has became an important tool in differential topology through the work of Raoul Bott [1923–2005], John Milnor [1931–], and Stephen Smale [1930–]. Bott found the important periodicity of stable homotopic groups of classical groups. J. Milnor introduced surgery theory while S. Smale proved the-cobordism theorem, which implies the Poincaré conjecture for dimension greater than 4.
40.Green's function, heat kernel and wave kernel are reproducing kernels that played important roles in the Fresholm theory of integral equations. Jacques Hadamard [1865–1963] constructed approximate kernels which are called parametrix. Gábor Szegő [1895–1985], Stefan Bergman [1895–1977], Salomon Bochner [1899–1982] studied reproducing kernel for various function space that have been important in several complex variables. Hua Loo-Keng [1910–1985] was able to compute these kernels for Siegel domains. Stefan Bergman used his kernel function to define the Bergman metric. Charles Feferman [1949–] gave detail analysis of the Bergman metric for bounded smooth strictly pseudo convex domain. A consequence of his analysis is the smoothness of the biholomorphic transformation up to the boundary. David Kazdhan [1946–] studied the structure of the Bergman metric under covering of manifolds. He was able to prove that Galois conjugate of Shimura varieties are still Shimura varieties.
40.格林函数、热核和波核等再生核在霍氏积分方程理论中扮演着重要的角色。哈达玛 找到了这些核的近似，称为拟基本解。塞戈、伯格曼、波克拿等人研究了在多复变函数论中重要的不同函数空间上的再生核。华罗庚计算了 Siegel 域上核函数。伯格曼利用他的核函数来定义伯格曼度量。费弗曼对有界光滑严格拟凸域上的伯格曼度量作出了详细的分析。从他的分析中，可以知道双全纯变换直到边界都是光滑的。卡兹丹研究了在流形覆盖下伯格曼度量的结构。他证明了志村簇的伽罗瓦共轭仍然是志村簇。
41.Salomon Bochner [1899–1982] introduced a method to prove vanishing theorem that links topology with curvature. The method was later extended by Kunihiko Kodaria [1915–1997] for d-bar operators and by André Lichnerowicz [1915–1998] for Dirac operators. Kodarira applied his vanishing theorem to prove any compact Kähler manifold with integral Kähler class is algebraic. The generalization to d-bar Neumann problem was achieved by Charles B. Morrey [1907–1984] who solved the Levi problem and proved the existence of a real analytic metric on real analytic manifolds. Joseph Kohn [1932–] improved Morrey’s work and reproved the Newlander–Nirenberg theorem on the integrability of almost complex structures. Kiyoshi Oka [1901–1978] and Hans Grauert [1930–2011] also solved the Levi problem. Kodaria, Spencer, and Masatake Kuranishi [1924–] studied deformation of complex structures.
42.Richard Brauer [1901–1977], John Thomson [1932–], Walter Feit [1930–2004], Daniel Gorenstein [1923–1992], Michio Susuki [1926–1998], Jacques Tits [1930–], John Conway [1937–2020], Robert Griess [1945–], and Michael Aschbacher [1944–] completed the classification of finite simple groups. The Moonshine conjecture relating representation of the Monster group with automorphic form was proved by Richard Borcherds [1959–].
43.Eugene Wigner [1902–1995] introduced the random matrix to study the spectrum of heavy atom nucleii. It was then conjectured by Freeman Dyson [1923–] that the spectrum obeyed the semicircle law for random unitary and orthogonal matrices. The Bohigas–Giannoni–Schmit conjecture held that spectral statistics whose classical counterpart exhibit chaotic behavior can be described by random matrix theory. Dan–Virgil Voiculescu [1949–] introduced free probability, which captures the asymptotic phenomena of random matrices.
44.In 1928, Frank P. Ramsey [1903–1930] introduces Ramsey theory which attempts to find regularity amid disorder. In 1959, Paul Erdős [1913–1996] and Alfréd Rényi [1921–1970] proposed the theory of random graphs. In 1976, Kenneth Appel [1932–2013] and Wolfgang Haken [1928–] proved the four color problem with helps by computer.
44.1928 年，拉姆齐发明了拉姆齐理论，用以在无序中寻找规律。1959 年，埃尔德什和仁易提出了随机图的理论。1976 年，阿佩尔和哈肯利用计算机证明了四色问题。
45.William Hodge [1903–1975] asked the important question as to whether a Hodge class of typecan, up to torsion, be represented by algebraic cycles. Around the same time, Wei-Liang Chow [1911–1995] introduced the varieties of algebraic cycles. Periods of algebraic integrals played important roles in understanding algebraic cycles. These integrals were computed using holomorphic differential equations. The related Picard Fuchs equations can be used to compute the periods of elliptic curves. In 1963, John Tate [1925–2019] proposed an arithmetic analogue of the Hodge conjecture to describe algebraic cycles in arithmetic varieties by Galois representation on Étale cohomology. G. Faltings was able to prove it for abelian varieties over number fields.
45.霍奇提出了一个重要的问题，即一个型的霍奇类能否在相差一个挠动下由代数闭链所表示。差不多同时，周炜良引进了代数闭链簇。代数积分的周期在理解代数闭链中起着重要的作用。这些积分的计算要用到全纯微分方程，如皮卡德–福克斯方程便用于计算椭圆曲线的周期。1963 年，泰特提出霍奇猜想在算术上的对应猜想，用在 Étale 上同调上的伽罗瓦表示来描述在算术簇上的代数闭链。法尔廷斯对数域上的阿贝尔簇证明了泰特猜想。
46.Andrey Kolmogorov [1903–1987], Aleksandr Khinchine [1894–1959], and Paul Lévy [1886–1971] laid the foundations of modern probability theory. Andrey Markov [1856–1922] introduced Markov chains. Kiyosi Itô [1915–2008] initiated the theory of stochastic equations. Norbert Wiener [1894–1964] defined Brownian motion as Gaussian process on function space and began the investigation of the Wiener process. Freeman Dyson [1923–] explained the stability of matter on the basis of quantum mechanics. The work was followed by Elliott H. Lieb [1932–] and coauthors. Harald Cramér [1893–1985] introduced large deviation theory. Simon Broadbent [1928–2002] and John Hammersley [1920–2004] introduced percolation theory.
47.John von Neumann [1903–1957] introduced operator algebra to study quantum field theory. This was followed by the work of Tomita–Takesaki. Alain Connes [1947–] introduced his non commutative geometry. Vaughan Jones [1952–] introduced the Jones polynomial as the first quantum link invariant. Edward Witten [1951–] used Chern Simons topological quantum field theory to interpret Jones polynomial for knots. Later Mikhail Khovanov [1972–] introduce his homology to explain Jones polynomial.
48.In 1932, John von Neumann and Lev Landau [1908–1968] introduced the concept of the density matrix in quantum mechanics. Von Neumann extended the classical Gibbs entropy to quantum mechanics. Both Norbert Wiener [1894–1964] and Claude Shannon [1916–2001] made important contributions to information theory where they separaely introduced concepts of entropy. Wiener developed cyberetics and cognitive science, robotics, and automation. Strong subadsitivity of quantum entropy was conjectured by D. Robinson [1935–] and D. Ruelle [1935–] and later proved by E. Lieb [1932–] and M. Ruskai [1944–].
49.Jean Leray [1906–1998] introduced sheaf theory and spectral sequences, which became an important tool for both algebraic geometry and topology. J.-P. Serre developed a spectral sequence to compute the torsion free part of the homotopy group of spheres. Frank Adams [1930–1989] also introduced his spectral sequence to study the homotopy groups of spheres.
50.André Weil [1906–1998] built a profound connection between algebraic geometry and number theory. He studied the infinite descent by using height and Galois cohomology. He introduced the Riemann hypothesis for algebraic varieties over finite fields. He propposed to study algebraic geometry over general fields and obtained important insights into number theory. Bernard Dwork [1923–1998], Michael Artin [1934–], Alexander Grothendieck [1928–2014] and Pierre Deligne [1944–] completed Weil’s project. Deligne proved Weil’s conjectures. This served as the foundation for the theory of arithmetic geometry. Alexander Grothendieck, J.-P. Serre, Bernard Dwork, and Michael Artin played fundamental roles in the development of algebraic and arithmetic geometry. In his seminal work Faisceaux Algébriques Cohérents, Serre applied the sheaf theory of Leray to algebraic geometry. Inspired by this, Grothendieck introduced schemes, topos to rebuild algebraic geometry using categories and functors. With his students, Grothendieck developed-adic cohomology, Étale cohomology, crystalline cohomology and finally proposed the ultimate cohomology --- the theory of motives. These theories build up the basic framework of modern algebraic geometry.
50.韦伊建构起代数几何和数论之间深刻的联系。他运用高度和伽罗瓦上同调群来研究无限下降法。对有限域上的代数簇，他提出了对应的黎曼假设。他也提议研究一般域上的代数几何，从而对数论获得重要的洞识。德沃克、阿廷、格罗腾迪克、德利涅一起完成韦伊的规划。德利涅证明了韦伊猜想，奠定了算术几何学的基础。格罗腾迪克、塞尔、德沃克和阿廷对代数几何和算术几何的发展皆有基本的贡献。塞尔在其奠基性工作 FAC 中将勒雷提出的层论应用到代数几何中去。格罗腾迪克受此启发引入概型，拓扑斯等概念把代数几何用范畴与函子的语言重新建立起来。此后格罗腾迪克及其学生发展出了-进上同调，Étale-上同调，晶体上同调并提出终极上同调理论 --- motive 理论。这些理论搭建了现代代数几何的基本框架。
51.The concept of an intermediate Jacobian for Kähler manifolds was first introduced by André Weil [1906–1998] and later by Phillip Griffiths [1938–] in a different form. Torrelli type theorems (true for algebraic curves ) were proposed and proved in many cases. A very important case involved K3 surfaces. The behavior of Hodge structure during degeneration of the algebraic manifolds was studied by Pierre Deligne [1944–], Wilfried Schmid [1943–], Kyoji Saito [1944–], and others. Mark Goresky [1950–] and Robert McPherson [1944–] introduced intersection cohomology to study the singular behavior of algebraic structures. Zucker conjectured that for Shimura varieties, the intersection cohomology is isomorphic tocohomology. This was proved by Eduard Looijenga [1948–] and Saper–Stern independently.
52.C. B. Morrey [1907–1984] solved the classical uniformation theorem with rough coefficients. He also solved the Plateau problem for general Riemannian manifolds, generalizing the work of Jesse Douglas [1897–1965] and Tibor Radó [1895–1965]. H. Weyl proposed isometric embedding for surfaces with positive curvature, and H. Minkowski proposed the Minkowski problem. Both of them were solved by Hans Lewy [1904–1988] in the real analytic case and by Aleksei Pogorelov [1919–2002] and Louis Nirenberg [1925–2020] for smooth surfaces. The higher dimensional Minkowski problem was solved by Pogorelov and Cheng–Yau. The real Monge–Ampère equation was used by Leonid Kantorovich [1912–1986] in the study of optimal transportation.
53.Lev Pontryagin [1908–1988] introduced cobordism theory into topology. René Thom [1923–2002] then calculated the cobordism group of oriented manifolds, which was then used by F. Hirzebruch to prove the signature formula for differentiable manifolds relating the signature of Poincaré pairing to Pontryagin numbers. John Milnor used it to prove the existence of an exotic seven-sphere, and hence began the theory of smooth structure for manifold. Michel Kervaire [1927–2007] and John Milnor classified exotic spheres and started surgery theory simultaneously with Sergei Novikov [1938–], thereby providing a fundamental tool for the classification of simply connected smooth manifolds. C.T.C. Wall [1936–] studied surgery with the fundamental group. Surgery theory brought in powerful tool to study important questions about homotopic structures, topological structures , PL structures , smooth structures and cobordism with special structures. This include works of Kirby–Sibermann, Brumfiel–Madsen–Milgrim and Brown–Peterson.
54.Alan Turing [1912–1954] introduced the concept of the Turing machine and launched the theory of computability. Stephen Cook [1939–] made a precise statement about complexity of theorem proving and proposed the famousproblem (Leonid Levin [1948–] also proposed it independently.) Leslie Valiant [1949–] introduced the concept ofcompleteness to explain the complexity of enumeration.
55.Samuel Eilenberg [1913–1998] and Saunders Mac Lane [1909–2005] started to use axiomatic approach for homology theory and also introduced Eilenberg–Maclane space to study cohomology of groups. Cohomology theory was then introduced into algebra and Lie theory by several people such as Gerhard Hochschild [1915–2010] and others. A. Grothendieck [1928–2014], M. Atiyah [1929–2019], F. Hirzebruch [1927–2012] and others introduced -theory as a generalized cohomology theory. There are natural operations such as cup and cap product, square operation in standard cohomology theory. There are similar operations on -theory.
56.Atle Selberg [1917–2007], Grigory Margulis [1946–], Marina Ratner [1938–2017], and Armand Borel [1923–2003] studied discrete subgroups of Lie groups by methods of ergodic theory, analysis, and geometry. Selberg introduced trace formula relating spectrum of the Laplacian of the quotient of a semi simple Lie group by a discrete group to the conjugate classes of the discrete group. Mostow used the quasiconformal method to prove the rigidity of a lattice acting on hyperbolic space form. He also proved super rigidity for lattices in higher rank groups. In the later case, Selberg conjectured that they are arithmetic. This was proved by Margulis. Ratner and Margulis also proved the Raghunathan and Oppenheim conjectures for discrete group. The Bruhat–Tits building was introduced by J. Tits to understand the structure of exceptional groups of Lie type. It is used to study homogeneous spaces of-adic Lie type.
57.Herbert Federer [1920–2010], Wendell Fleming [1928–], Frederick Almgren [1933–1997,] and William Allard developed geometric measure theory. Enrico Bombieri [1940–], Ennio de Giorgi [1928–1996], and Enrico Giusti [1940–] solved the Bernstein problem and, coupling that with the work of Simons, proved that area minimizing hypersurfaces have at worst codimension 7 singularities. F. Almgren proved that area minimizing currents are smooth outside a closed set of codimension 2. Sacks–Uhlenbeck developed the theory of the existence of minimal spheres in a manifold using variational principle and bubbling process. The work was used by Siu–Yau to prove the Frenkel conjecture and by Gromov to study invariants in symplectic geometry.
57.费德勒、费莱明、阿尔姆格伦和阿拉德等人发展了几何测度论。邦比里、德-乔治、朱斯蒂合作解决了伯恩斯坦问题。和西蒙斯的工作结合起来，他们证明了面积极小超曲面最坏有余 7 维数的奇点。阿尔姆格伦证明了面积极小流在一个余 2 维的闭集外是光滑的。萨克斯–乌伦贝克利用变分原理和冒泡过程发展了流形中极小球面的存在性。萧荫堂–丘成桐利用这成果证明了弗伦克尔猜想；格罗莫夫又用它探究了辛几何上的不变量。
58.A. Calderón [1920–1998] and A. Zygmund [1900–1992] studied singular integral operators of convolution type, generalizing the Hilbert Transform, Beurling transform, and Riesz transform. They studied the decomposition theorem for functions, based on work of Hardy–Littlewood, Marcel Riesz [1886–1969], and Józef Marcinkiewicz [1910–1940].
59.Friedrich Hirzebruch [1927–2012] discovered the higher-dimensional Riemann–Roch formula, based on his theory of multiplicative sequences and an observation of J.-P. Serre for algebraic surfaces. He proved it for algebraic manifolds. Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer extended that to more general elliptic differential operators and proved the index formula. Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch was then proved to be true in general. The general theorem was used by Kunihiko Kodaria [1915–1997] to extend the Italian classification of algebraic surfaces to general complex surfaces. Linear differential operators began to enter differential topology, of which the Dirac operator and the d-bar operator are the most important ones.-theory was developed by Hirzebruch, Grothendieck, Atiyah–Hirzebruch, Bott, and others. Many important problems in topology and algebra were solved by-theory. Algebraic-theory was introduced by J. Milnor, Hyman Bass [1932–], Stephen Schanuel [1933–2014], Robert Steinberg [1922–2014], Richard Swan [1933–], Stephen Gersten [1940–] and Daniel Quillen [1940–2011]. They gave powerful tools to apply deep algebraic machinery to understand problems in topology.
60.Peter Swinnerton-Dyer [1927-2018] and Bryan Birch [1931-] introduced their famous conjecture for elliptic curves over number fields, which relates the rank of the Mordell–Weil group to the leading degree of Hasse–Weil-function at the center. Coates–Wiles, Gross–Zagier, and Kolyvagin etc made important contributions to this conjecture. Gross–Zagier's work was used by Dorian Goldfeld [1947-] to give an effective bound for class numbers of imaginary quadratic fields, solving a question of Gauss, after the works of Hans Heilbronn [1908–1975], Kurt Heegner [1893–1965], and Harold Stark [1939–]. Alexander Beilinson [1957–], Spencer Bloch [1944–] and Kazuya Kato [1952–] generalized the conjecture to higher dimensional arithmetic varieties.
61.Hassler Whitney [1907–1989] initiated the study of immersion and embedding of manifolds into Euclidean space. The Gauss map of the immersion gives rise to a classifying map of the manifold into the Grassmannian, which classifies bundles over a manifold. Classifying immersions up to isotopy was initiated by Whitney and completed by Stephen Smale [1930–] and Morris Hirech [1933–]. The immersion conjecture was finally proved by Ralph Cohen [1952–] in 1985. It says that dimensional manifold can be immersed into Euclidean space of dimension where is the number of ones appeared in the binary expansion of .John Nash [1928–2015] proved that any manifold can be isometrically embedded into Euclidean space based on his implicit function theorem. But the embedding dimension is not optimal. Smale–Hirsch immersion theory was extended significantly by Mikhail Gromov [1943–] for treating differential relations. Local embedding of surfaces into three space is not known due to degeneracy of curvature. The case of nonnegative curvature was solved by C.S. Lin [1951–].
61.惠特尼开启了将流形浸入和嵌入到欧几里得空间的研究。浸入的高斯映射给出了流形到格拉斯曼流形的分类映射，从而将流形上的向量丛进行分类。惠特尼开始了合痕意义下的浸入分类工作，最后由史梅尔和希雷奇完成。浸入猜想最终由科恩于 1985 年证明。该猜想指出维流形可以浸入到维数为的欧几里得空间，其中是的二进制表示中1的个数。纳什证明了任何流形都可以基于他的隐函数定理等距地嵌入到欧几里得空间中。但是嵌入维数不是最佳的。格罗莫夫极大地扩展了史梅尔和希雷奇的浸入理论，以处理微分关系。由于曲率退化，曲面局部嵌入到三维空间仍未解决。林长寿解决了非负曲率情形。
62.Ennio de Giorgi [1928–1996], John Nash [1928–2015], Jürgen Moser [1928–1999], and Nicolai Krylov [1941–] developed the regularity theory of uniform elliptic equations for scalar functions. Luis Caffarelli [1948–], Joel Spruck, and Louis Nirenberg developed similar work for fully nonlinear elliptic equations. R. Schoen and others study semi linear and quasilinear equations with critical exponents.
63.Roger Penrose [1931–] and Stephen Hawking [1942–2018] introduced the theory of singularities in general relativity, thus laying a strict mathematical foundation for the theory of black holes. Kerr found a solution to the equation of black holes with angular momentum, which became the basis of all black hole theories. Brandon Carter, Werner Israel, and Hawking proved the uniqueness of black holes under regularity assumptions of the event horizon. Richard Schoen and S.-T. Yau gave the first proof of existence of black holes formed through the condensation of matter. Christodoulou and Klainreman proved that Minkowski space time is dynamically stable.
64.Heisuke Hironaka [1931–] proved that in characteristic zero the singularities of algebraic varieties can be resolved by successive blowing ups. John Mather [1942–2017] and Stephen Yau [1952–] showed that classification of isolated singularities can be reduced to study finite dimensional commutative algebra. Shigefumi Mori [1951–] proposed the minimal model program to study the birational geometry of high-dimensional algebraic varieties. This was followed by Yujiro Kawamata [1952–], Yoichi Miyaoka [1949–], Vyacheslav Shokurov [1950–], János Kollár [1956–] and others.
65.In 1938, Paul Smith [1900–1980] initiated the study of finite groups acting on a manifold using cohomology theory. Smith theory was extended by A. Borel in 1960 who introduced equivariant cohomology. Smith made a conjecture that the fixed point set of a cyclic group acting in the three sphere must be an unknot. This was finally solved by a combinations of efforts due to several authors: the minimal surface method of Meeks–Yau, geometrization program of Thurston and the works of Cameron Gordon [1945–] on group theory. Meeks–Simon–Yau extended the result to cover the case of exotic sphere by proving that an embedded sphere in three manifolds can be isotopic to disjoint embedded minimal spheres joined by curves.
66.In 1947 , George Dantzig [1914–2005] introduced the simplex method to linear programming. In 1984, Narendra Karmarkar [1957–] introduced the interior point method where the complexity is polynomial bounded. Yves Meyer [1939–] and Stéphane Mallat [1962–] developed wavelet analysis, which was followed by Ingrid Daubechies [1954–] and Ronald Coifman [1941–].
67.In 1967, Clifford Garder [1924–2013], John Greene [1928–2007], and Martin Kruskal [1925–2006] introduced the inverse scattering method to solve the KDV equation. Soliton solutions were found. Later, the method was extended to many famous nonlinear partial differential equations. It was interpreted as a factorization problem in Riemann–Hilbert correspondence. The Lax pair was introduced to give a good conceptual understanding of the method. The Gel’fand–Levitan method was also used in the process.
68.The Langlands program has been a most influential driving force behind many facets of modern number theory. It unifies number theory, arithmetic geometry, and harmonic analysis based on general theory of automorphic forms. Hervé Jacquet [1939–] and James Arthur [1944–] made important contributions towards this programs. The solution of the Taniyama–Shimura–Weil conjecture due to Andrew Wiles is a triumph of the program. This conjecture was used by Wiles, with helps from Richard Taylor [1962–], to solve the Fermat’s conjecture, based on earlier observations of Gerhard Frey [1944–], J.-P. Serre and Ken Ribet [1948–] on elliptic curves.
69.James Eells [1926–2007] and Joseph H. Sampson [1926–2003] proved that heat flows on harmonic maps into manifolds with non positive curvature exists for all time and converges to a harmonic map. Richard Hamilton [1943–] introduced Ricci flows for the space of metrics. His extensive work in this area included a generalization of an important inequality of Li–Yau for general parabolic equations. Richard Hamilton, Gerhard Huisken [1958–], Carlo Sinestrari [1970–], and others developed parallel programs for mean curvature flows.
70.In cooperation with R. Schoen, L. Simon, K. Uhlenbeck , R. Hamilton, C. Taubes, S. Donaldson and others , S.-T. Yau laid the foundation for modern geometric analysis. They resolved a series of geometric problems by using non-linear differential equations. A prime example of that was the proof of the Calabi conjecture where Yau determined which Kähler manifolds can admit Kähler Ricci flat metrics. For Kähler–Einstein metrics with negative scalar curvature, existence was established by Aubin and Yau. Yau used this to prove Chern number inequalities that implied the Severi conjecture regarding the uniqueness of algebraic structure over projective space. Yau conjectured the existence of Kähler–Einstein metics on Fano manifolds in terms of stability.
71.In 1979, Richard Schoen [1950–] and S.-T. Yau solved the positive mass conjecture, which demonstrated the stability of isolated physical spacetime in terms of energy. At the time, the proof only worked up to dimension seven. Edward Witten subsequently came up with a proof using spinors that works for spin manifolds. The concept of quasi local mass was studied by many researchers including Roger Penrose [1931–], Robert Bartnik, Stephen Hawking [1942–2018], Gary Gibbons [1946–], Gary Horowitz [1955–], Brown–York and others.
72.William Thurston [1946–2012] proposed a program to classify three manifolds according to eight classical geometries. He proved that atoroidal and sufficiently large three manifolds admit hyperbolic metrics that are unique due to the strong rigidity theorem of Mostow. In the process of his proof , he studied dynamics over Riemann surfaces and the singular foliation defined by holomorphic quadratic differential. He also proved codimensional one foliation exists in a manifold iff the Euler number of the manifold is zero.
73. Michael Freedman [1951–], using the theory of Casson Handle and Bing topology, was able to prove the four dimensional Poincaré conjecture and also classify simply connected manifolds in topological category.
74.In 1982, Edward Witten [1951–] derived Morse theory using ideas of quantum field theory and supersymmetry. It gave a powerful tool to connect geometry with physics. In 1988, he introduced topological quantum field theory, and this was followed by Michael Atiyah who also used some ideas of Graeme Segal [1941–] on axiomatization of conformal field theory. Many topological invariants are enriched from this point of view, and they are showing importance in condensed matter theory.
74. 1982 年，威滕运用量子场论和超对称性的观念推导出摩尔斯理论，为连接几何与物理提供了一个强有力的工具。1988 年，他引入了拓扑量子场理论，随后的阿蒂雅使用了西格尔关于共形场理论公理化的部分思想。从这一观点出发，人们找到了许多拓扑不变量，它们在凝聚态理论中有着重要的意义。
75.Based on the works of Uhlenbeck and Taubes on the moduli space of gauge theory for four manifolds, Simon Donaldson [1957–] found new constraints on the intersection pairing of second cohomology for smooth four dimensional manifolds. It is in sharp contract to the works of Michael Freedman [1951–] who proved the topological Poincaré conjecture in four dimensions and classified simply connected topological four manifolds. Donaldson also defined his polynomial invariants for four manifolds. The theory was simplified after Seiberg–Witten introduced their invariants. Seiberg–Witten invariants can be used to settle several important questions regarding topology of algebraic surfaces.
76.After the partial works of N. Trudinger and T. Aubin, Richard Schoen completed the proof of the Yamabe conjecture for conformal geometry. The argument bridged the subjects of mathematics of general relativity and conformal geometry. Schoen and Yau applied the argument to classify the structure of complete conformally flat manifolds with positive scalar curvature. Schoen–Yau introduces metric surgery in the category of manifolds with positive scalar curvature. Gromov–Lawson followed the work and observed that it is closely linked to spin cobordism. As a result, Stephan Stolz found a necessary and sufficient condition for a compact simply connected manifold to admit metric with positive scalar curvature when dimension is not 3 and 4. For nonsimply connected manifolds, there are other criterion based on minimal hypersurfaces by Schoen–Yau.
76.在特鲁丁格和奥宾的一些工作之后，孙理察完成了关于共形几何的山辺猜想的证明，架起了广义相对论数学与共形几何学之间的桥梁。孙理察和丘成桐以此对正数量曲率的完备共形平坦流形的结构进行了分类。孙理察和丘成桐在正数量曲率流形中引入度量割补。格罗莫夫和劳森跟进了这项工作并发现它与自旋配边有着密切相关。结果斯托尔茨找到了紧单连通流形在维度不为 3 和 4 时具有正数量曲率度量的充分必要条件。对于非单连通流形，还有其他基于孙理察–丘成桐的极小超曲面的判别标准。
77.In 1986, Karen Uhlenbeck [1942–] and S.-T. Yau solved the Hermitian–Yang–Mills equations for stable bundles, while Simon Donaldson [1957–] did the same for algebraic surfaces using a different method. The DUY theorem became an important part of Heteriotic string theory. It’s analysis was then used by C. Simpson to give holomorphic bundles with Higgs field, a concept introduced by Nigel Hitchin [1946–]. The concept of Higgs bundle was used by Ngô Bảo Châu [1972–] to prove the fundamental lemma in Langlands program.
78.Inspired by the work of Witten on Morse theory, Andreas Floer [1956–1991] defined Floer theory in symplectic geometry. Taubes proved the Seiberg–Witten invariant is equal to the symplectic invariant defined by him which he called the Gromov–Witten invariant. As a consequence, he proved the rigidity of symplectic structure on the projective plane.
79.Brian Greene [1963–]–Ronen Plesser [1963–], and Philip Candelas [1951–] et al. introduced mirror symmetry for Calabi–Yau spaces. Candelas et al. were able to use this symmetry to propose a formula in enumerative geometry for three dimensional quintics. Independently, Alexander Givental [1958–] and Lian–Liu–Yau rigorously proved the formula and hence solved an old problem in enumerative geometry, validating string theory as a powerful and insightful way to make mathematical predictions in geometry. Maxim Kontsevich [1964–] proposed homological mirror symmetry as a categorical formulation of mirror symmetry. Strominger–Yau–Zaslow proposed a geometric interpretation of mirror symmetry using special Lagrangian cycles. Both programs inspired activities in the field linking algebraic geometry to string theory.
80.Peter Shor [1959–] gave the first quantum algorithm for factorization, which is exponentially faster than classical algorithms. It is a driving force for developing quantum computation.